Operating system is collection of softwares which helps us to communicate with hardware. It works as a mediator between hardware and the user. it provides an environment to run application. Operating system manages and control the hardware resources according to the applications requirements. it allocates and deallocates the hardware resources according to the system calls.
Mazor Functionality of Operating System
- Resource Manager/ Governer
when we have multiple users to access the same system, then OS manages & control the session and resources for each users and also in case when multiple programs runs in the same system, in that case also OS allocates and controls the system resources.
- Process Management
It involves multiple tasks like process creation, process scheduling, process termination, and a dead lock. Process is a program that runs to manage the related task, which is an important part of modern-day operating systems. The OS allocates resources that enables process to share and exchange information. It also protects the resources of each process and allows synchronization among processes. there are multiple algorithms to manages the process, generally we call it CPU Scheduling algorithms.
- Security & Privacy: Authenticate users and secures the process.
- Storage Management
- Memory Management
- User Management
Types of Operating System
There are multiple type of operating system we have
- Single-tasking and Multi-tasking Operating System: Single tasking operating system can run only one program at a time while multi-tasking OS is capable to run multiple programs at a time.
- Single-user & Multi-user OS: in single user OS only one user can login at a time and can run multiple programs but in multi-user OS multiple user can access the same system at a time and run the multiple programs.
- Distributed OS: it is a group of distinct, networked computers and makes them appear to be a single computer, as all computations are distributed (divided amongst the constituent computers).
- Templated: In the distributed or cloud computing context of an OS, template refers to creating a single virtual image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a template for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in modern infrastructure development.
- Embedded: Embedded OS are very compact and extremely efficient by design and able to run with limited resources. these OS are designed to operate on small machine and less autonomy.
- Real Time Operating System(RTOS): RTOS are used to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, without any buffer delays. it is a time-bound system which has well-defined, fixed time constraints. Processing must be done within the defined time otherwise system will fail.
- Library: A library OS provides services that a very typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a image, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments.
Operating System shares in the market
Some Famous Desktop Operating System
- MS-Windows: Best OS for personal use and day to day task, but this is not preferable for the server kind of environment. we have some version of windows which are specific for setup servers (i.e windows server 2008, 2012, 2016 etc.)
- Mac : Best for apple softwares, desktop operations, and security purpose.
- Linux : Linux is a opensource operating system and it was developed by Linus Torvalds. it is fast and more stable than the other OS available in the market, in server setup Linux is preferred.
- Chrome: It is available on number of low cost and some high-end laptops, like chrome books.
What is portable OS
Sometimes specially when we are travelling, going to another location and we don’t want to carry our laptop or can’t carry our desktop but we wanted to use our favorite operating system in someone else system which already has an OS, there portable OS fulfills our demands. we can take these OS in a pendrive and run in a system without installing it.
10 best portable OS
- MX Linux
- Puppy Linux
- Peppermint OS
- Kali Linux
- Tiny Core Linux
- Damm Small Linux
Which is the best OS for personal use
For personal use Windows and MAC OS are the best options. for personal use, we don’t need powerful OS especially for simple tasks like writing or browsing the web. For gaming purpose, Windows operating system is well optimized than that of MAC.
Which OS is fastest
There is no argument that Linux based Operating Systems are the lightest and fastest OS in the market right now. they don’t need a powerful processor unlike Windows or Mac to operate at an optimal level.
Linux based Operating System like Ubuntu Server, Cent OS server, Fedora, Debian, Raspberry Pi are great options.
5 Best Operating system for desktop
- Mac OS
- Chrome OS
- Cent OS