Networking Concepts

Interconnecting of two or more devices is called network, and communication between them is called networking. to establish data communication between two or more device we use different devices(i.e Hub/Switch/Router/Access Point etc.) and different protocols(i.e RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, BGP etc).

Types of network

Local Area Network (LAN): To connect interconnection of PSc and other networking devices which are very close together in very limited area such as a floor, a building or within a campus, in these cases we use LAN.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): To connect networking devices ans systems that may span around the entire city, we can use MAN.

Wide Area Network (WAN): It is used to connect two or more LANs present a different geographical locations.


It is a networking infrastructure with massive network of networks. It connects

billions of devices located on different geographical location and establishes communication among them as long as they connected to the internet and authorized to communicate each other.

Network Topology

Bus Topology

Ring Topology

Star Topology

Mesh Topology

Basic Requirement to setup a network

Network Interface Card (NIC): NIC is a interface between computer and the network, also known as Lan card or Ethernet card, it has a 48 bit unique address called MAC(Media Access Control) address, it is also known as physical address or hardware address.

Media:The purpose of media is to transport bits from one machine to another machine(i.e cable, infrared, RF etc).

Networking Devices

Switch: It centralizes communications between wired devices connected within a LAN.

Wireless Access Point: It centralizes communications between wireless and wired devices within a LAN.

Router: It enables communication between two or more different logical networks.

Firewall: It protects the network from unauthorized access, it allows and denies the network traffic based upon policy configured.

IP Address 

It is a Network Layer Logical address.

there are two version of IP

  1. IP version 4 is 32 bit address
  2. IP version 6 is 128 bit address

IP Version 4

  • in IP v4 bit is represented by 0 or 1(i.e Binary)
  • IP address in binary form (32 bit) [01001101110101010111101011010111]
  • 32 bits are divided in 4 octates [0100.1101.1101.0101.0111.1010.1101.0111]
  • in decimal form (i.e

IP Address Classification

It is divided into 5 classes

  • Class A
  • Class B
  • Class C
  • Class D
  • Class E

Class A,B & C are used for LAN & WAN

Class D Reserved for Multi casting

Class E Reserved for  Research & Development

Subnet Mask

It differentiates the Network and the Host portions in the IP address. All 1’s represents the network portion and all 0’s represents the host portions.

Examples of Subnet Mask

Class A : N.H.H.H


Default subnet mask is

Class B: N.N.H.H


Default subnet mask is

Class C: N.N.N.H


Default subnet mask is

Private IP Address

There are certain IP address in each class reserved for the private networks. These address are called as private address.

These addresses can only be used in the private networks, they are not valid (or non routable)  on internet.

Private IP Range

Class A: to

Class B: to

Class C: to

Difference between Public IP and Private IP





Rohit Kumar Singh

Technical writer, enthusiastic to learn new technologies and exploring the things.

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